Skip to main content

Full text of "Transactions of the West Kent Natural History, Microscopical & Photographic Society."

See other formats


Meetings of tbe Societp, 



FOR THE SESSION 1901-2. 



Wednesday, March 
April 
May 
October 
November 
December 
January 
February . 



27th, 1001, 
24th 
22nd 
23rd 
27th 
nth 
22nd, 1902. 
26th ,, (Annual) 



The Chair is taken at Eight o'clock. 



THE MEETINGS ARE HELD 
THE MISSION SCHOOL, 



IN THE HALL OF 
BLACKHEATH. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



t&t Pent statural ^iatorg, 
^tkroBcopicat Sc pkoto^rajptkic^octetg, 



WITH \% 




REPORTS OF THE COUNCIL AND AUDITORS 



* 1901-1902, 



AND 



RULES & LIST OF MEMBERS 



bonbon : 

E. G. BERRYMAN & SONS, STEAM PRINTERS, 
BlyACKHEATH ROAD, S.E. 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



(ilbst pent Natural pistorg, 
Jfticrosf opical Sc f3hoiograph.it Sorktg, 

WITH J 

REPORTS OF THE COUNCIL IlttPITORS 



<• 1901-1902, ** 



RULES & LIST OF MEMBERS, 



feonbon : 

E. G. BERRYMAN & vSONS, STEAM PRINTERS, 
blackhkath road, S.E. 



19 2 



2 



LIST OF OFFICERS 



OF THE 



Utest licnt Jlatuval Distovg, Microscopical anb 
Photographic Sotiett), 

Elected at the Annual Meeting, February 27th, 1901, 
FOR THE SEASON 1901-1902. 



ftestbent 

H. F. BlLLINGHURST, F.S.S. 

A. Deed. 

R. McLachlan, F.R.S. 

J. M. Stone, M.A. 

F. T. Tayler, M.B., B.A. 

Herbert Jones, F.S.A., F.L.S. 

Stanley Edwards, F.R.G.S., F.E.S. 

W. B. BlLLINGHURST, B.A. 



H. J. Adams, M.A., F.R.A.S. 

H. Dolling-Smith. 

T. O. Donaldson, M. Inst. 



J. C. Weare. 

W. Webster, F.C.S. 



S. Smith Harvey. 



C.E. 

Geo. Draper, F.R.G.S. 
W. H. Gover. 
H. Hainworth, F.R.H.S. 
Walter Kidd, M.D., F.Z.S. 



T. B. Wire. 



H. F. WlTHERBY, F.Z.S., 

M.B.O.U. 



P. T. Wrigley, M.A. 



LIST OF OFFICERS 



OF THE 



oMzst Sent Jlatuval Jpstorj), iftiaoscopical a 
photographic §oaet|>, 

Elected at the Annual Meeting, February 26///, 1902, 
FOR THE SEASON 1902-1903. 



George Draper, F.R.G.S. 
^ice-^iestiients. 

H. F. BlLLINGHURST, F.S.S. 

T. O. Donaldson, M. Inst. C.E. 
Walter Kidd, M.D., F.Z.S. 
R. McLachlan, F.R.S. 

3$ on. treasurer. 
Herbert Jones, F.S.A., F.L.S. 

Stanley Edwards, F.R.G.S., F.E.S. 

W. B. BlLLINGHURST, B.A. 



Council. 



H. J. Adams, M.A., F.R.A.S, 

A. Deed. 

W. H. Cover. 

H. Hainworth, F.R.H.S. 

Morgan May. 

J. M. Stone, M.A. 

F. T. Tayler, M.B., B.A. 



J. C. Weare. 

A. D. Webster, F.R.S 

W. Webster, F.C.S. 

T. B. Wire. 

H. F. Witherby, F.Z 



M.B.O.U. 
P. T. Wrigley, M.A. 



REPORT OF THE COUNCIL, 



For the Session 1901 = 1902. 



✓dL HE Council have to report that the Society is pursuing 
\wj the even tenor of its way, but that it has failed to 
mark the commencement of the new Century by 
any awakened vitality or by any increase in the 
number of members, although the general interest in 
scientific subjects that come within the ken of the Society 
rapidly progresses in expectation of the present Century, 
revealing by scientific research many of the wonders of 
Nature hitherto undreamt of. 

The proceedings at the ordinary meetings of the Society 
during the Session have been as under, viz. : — 

March, 1901. — The President delivered his address 
relating to " The existence of Coal in this Country, and the 
present position and future prospects of the supply." This 
address was unavoidably postponed from the Annual Meeting 
in February, and was printed and distributed to the members 
in the Transactions of the Session, 1900-1901. 

April, 1901.— Mr. Herbert Jones, F.S.A., F.L.S., the 
Hon. Treasurer, gave some notes on last year's excavations 
at Canterbury and Richborough, and on a find of Roman 
antiquities at W aimer, in Kent. 

May, 1901. — Very interesting papers and notes were 
given by Mr. Herbert Jones, Mr. Geo. Draper, and Mr. A. 
D. Webster relative to exhibits at the Biennial Soiree of the 
Society, held on the 14th May. A number of the exhibits 
being reproduced for the inspection of the members. 

October, 1901. — Photographs taken during the summer 
months, at the Ladies' Field Meeting and elsewhere, were 
exhibited by Messrs. J. C. Weare and W. H. Gover. Mr. 
Geo. Draper also made some exhibits of curios — from Cyprus 
and elsewhere — of great interest. 

November, 1901.— Mr. Stanley Edwards, F.R.G.S., F.E.S 
read a paper on the " Charaxes," a family of Butterflies, an 



exhibited specimens of these Butterflies and allied species. 
Mr. J. C. Weare submitted some exceptionally interesting 
specimens of photographs that he had recently taken by a 
new process giving two distinct colours, grey and yellow ; 
the rays of the setting autumn sun being given in the latter 
colour. 

December, 1901.— Mr. A. D. Webster, F.R.S.E., read a 
paper on " Trees and Shrubs best adapted for town atmos- 
phere." This paper will be printed with the Transactions of 
the Session. 

January, 1902.— Mr. Herbert Jones, F.S.A., F.L.S., 
gave some particulars of the excavations recently carried 
out at Stonehenge ; a large Wasps' Nest was exhibited by 
Mr. Stanley Edwards ; numbers of Swiss photographs by 
Mr. W T . H. Gover ; a collection of Egyptian photographs by 
Mr. Geo. Draper, who further submitted numerous curios 
from the Island of Cocos and other very interesting exhibits. 

The Biennial Soiree of the Society was held on the 
14th May, 1901, in the Lecture Hall adjoining the Congre- 
gational Church, Blackheath, when the President and 
Council had the pleasure of entertaining some 300 of the 
members and their friends. Lecturettes were given during 
the evening by Mr. Fredk. Enock and Mr. William Webster, 
and a short selection of Music was performed. The Society 
was particularly fortunate on the occasion in the number 
and interest of the exhibits that were made, not only by the 
members of the Society, but also by Miss Airy, Mrs. Gordon, 
and others, and they have been assured that their guests fully 
appreciated and enjoyed the social reunion. 

The excursions of the Society during the past year have 
been as follows, viz. : — 

The Ladies' Field Meeting took place on Saturday, 
15th June, and about 22 members and friends were present. 
Penshurst Place and Hever Castle were visited, the latter 
being much appreciated by reason of Capt. Sebright (the 
owner) personally conducting the party throughout the 
Castle. 

The Annual Dinner was held at the " Old Falcon/' 
Gravesend, on Saturday, 13th July. Twelve members and 
friends assembled for the occasion. 



6 



The Cryptogamic Meeting of the Society was held on 
Saturday, the 19th October, at Orpington and St. Paul's 
Cray Common. Twelve members and friends were present, 
and Dr. M. C. Cooke attended as expert. Sixty-five speci- 
mens of fungi were collected, amongst them being several 
new to the district ; a list of these fungi will be printed in 
the Transactions. 

The Council regret that the attendance was so moderate 
at all these excursions, and trust that members will, in the 
future, support the President to a greater extent. 

The Accounts of the Society, for the Session 1901-1902, 
have been duly audited, and are issued, as usual, with this 
Report, but the Council wish to call the particular attention 
of the members to the adverse balance of £13 0s. Id. shown 
by them. This debit balance has arisen from the circum- 
stance of the Biennial Soiree coinciding with an unusually 
heavy printers' bill, occasioned by the excellence of the 
Papers read at the Meetings, two of which are printed in 
full, and it will no doubt be extinguished in the current year. 
There is, however, but little chance of the Society's accumu- 
lating any money this year towards the expenses of the next 
Soiree in 1903, as has always been the policy of the Council. 

An expenditure of about £50 per annum — the amount of 
last year's disbursements — is not excessive for such a Society 
as the West Kent Natural History, Microscopical and 
Photographic, and, in a neighbourhood like Blackheath, the 
Council should certainly be able to rely upon an income 
which would cover it : requiring, as it does, only a member- 
ship of a hundred at the current subscription of half-a- 
guinea. Unfortunately, during the last few years many 
of the old supporters of the West Kent Society have fallen 
off through death and other unavoidable causes ; so the 
Council wish strongly to urge upon the subscribers the 
necessity of inducing suitable new members to join, in order 
to perpetuate the prosperity of this old Society, to which, in 
former years, so many distinguished men have belonged. 



7 



OOONOO© 



CO OHOXJiOO 



© 00 CO O CO © o 

rc CO O ^r 1 CO ^ 

H H i—l i-H 

cc <M co -i i-i 



cc 

o 

c*> © • 

K| „ ° 

3 

ca o Jh 



in 
© 

3 



3 a © o 



a Q Ph S 



© c 



oq a 



5 © 
© 

65) P 



Ph 

. ^ : 

"SbC © 
'o 3 § 

5» 4S a en 
rt « ® o 

„ © o 



o c« a 
& ° a 5 s 

1° 8.9 

-• * a 



13 o 
O 



■•2 ® 

-3 Ph 

a * 

I £ 

a § 

°8 a 

a * 

a © 

w bfi 

f-i cc 
© o 

pq Pl, 



CD CO O ' O O .-I 

I 

O -tf t}( I OS N CO 



Ml 



be ^ 



25 Q 1—1 
25 © © 
<*> os os 



© a 

w a 

a o 

© o 

H © 

38 



© 

-a 



a 4; 



a © 

O U 



8 



ADDRESS 

DELIVERED BEFORE THE 

WEST KENT NATURAL HISTORY, 
MICROSCOPICAL and PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY, 

BY 

The President, H. F. BILLING HURST, Esq., F.S.S., 

On February 26th, 1902. 



HEN I had the pleasure last year of making my small 
contribution to our proceedings in the shape of the 
Annual Presidential Address, I made some comments 
on one of the great productions of Nature which 
almost appears to be essential to our existence, viz., 
Coal, and to which, great attention was then called by reason 
of the suddenly enhanced value of the product. On this 
occasion I will offer a few remarks on another natural pro- 
duction of far greater consequence to us than Coal, and of 
which if we were deprived we should soon cease to exist at 
all. — I refer to Water. 

To us who are located in the area of the great Metropolis, 
the question of Water, or rather of Water Supply, is at" the 
moment of interest by reason of the matter being before the 
Legislature for adjustment of the mode of supply, if need be, 
to meet the requirements not only of the present generation 
but of those to come. 

We need not trouble ourselves in this Society as to the 
political aspect of the matter ; the supply of water we trust 
will always exist, and the needs of this vast population of 
London will likewise always exist, whether the manipulation 
is in the hands of A, B, or C ; — we must only hope that any 
change made in the distribution of the product may conduce 
to the convenience and well-being of the consumers. 




9 



Water being so absolutely essential to our existence, it 
can but be regarded as one of the great blessings of Provi- 
dence that so vast a population as that congregated in the 
Metropolitan area, amounting to some 6,000,000, have the 
benefit of an ample daily supply of this necessity of life. The 
daily supply is calculated at 212,000,000 gallons, or about 
35 gallons per head ; and practically we have no knowledge 
of a water famine. 

The supply of London is at present in the hands of eight 
Companies, of whom five draw their water from the River 
Thames, two from the River Lea and the New River, and 
one from deep Chalk wells — the last-named being the Kent 
Water Works Company, in whose supply we are interested, 
and through whose auspices we obtain the purest and best 
water in the London area. 

It will be remembered that a year or two since the supply 
of East London from the River Lea partially failed, owing to 
a very dry season ; but this has now been rectified by con- 
nections with the mains of the other Companies, so that 
water can be borrowed from other sources when any particular 
one partially fails. The great storage of Artesian water 
does not appear to be utilised to any extent in London except 
in the case of the Kent Water Works Company already 
mentioned. It may be noted, however, that the breweries in 
London draw their water from Artesian wells, and it perhaps 
may not generally be known that the fountains in Trafalgar 
Square get their supply from this source. 

Some of the other large cities of England and Scotland 
have not been so fortunate as the Metropolis, and have had 
to get their supply from the mountainous districts in Wales 
and elsewhere, and it is anticipated that London will in time 
have to follow the same course, and get supplies from Wales. 

These Islands are geographically so favourably placed, 
that they get all the benefit of the humid atmosphere coming 
up from the Atlantic, and consequently have such a rain 
supply that drought is almost unknown — further, the surface 
of the Islands is sufficiently mountainous to attract the rain 
clouds, and the numerous rivers and streams irrigate the 
land, while there appears to be an ample storage of water in 
the strata of the earth. Hence the water supply is always 
ample. The need is great, but the bountiful supply is 
greater. 



10 



I fear we do not fully appreciate this bountiful supply, 
nor do we pay sufficient attention to economy in the use of 
water ; waste is positively sinful with such a good gift. I 
have often wondered, living as we do surrounded by the great 
ocean, that the sea water is not made use of for many 
purposes — notably for watering the streets. One would 
suppose that the sea water could be brought up to London 
at a very moderate cost, and be utilized economically in lieu 
of fresh water, which is so much needed for other purposes ; 
while in such a matter as watering the streets the salt water 
would probably be beneficial. 

The convenience and blessing we enjoy of ample water 
supply and absence generally of droughts, should lead us to 
think of other portions of our Empire not so favourably circum- 
stanced. The great Island, or shall we say Continent of 
Australia, is a case in point. In Australia there are practically 
no rivers ; in the whole of its vast area there is but one river 
of importance — the Darling-Murray — and the great Continent 
is very sparsely supplied with mountainous regions to collect 
rain, while, the soil generally is of so absorptive a nature that 
the very moderate rainfall quickly disappears, and the great 
plains of Australia are from time to time the regions of 
excessive drought, the herbage disappears, and the sheep and 
cattle — without herbage and without water— die off, not by 
thousands but by millions. During the last five to seven 
years a large area in New South Wales and Queensland has 
been subject to one of these severe droughts, and the loss in 
New South Wales in seven years is estimated at no fewer 
than fifty million sheep, and in Queensland, last year alone, 
at upwards of one million cattle and nearly five million sheep. 
Those who are interested in the products of Australia know 
that that means ruin to the squatter, terrible loss to the 
merchants who manipulate the great staple products of 
Australia — Wool — and general misfortune to the community 
at large. It is sincerely to be hoped that the long season of 
drought is approaching its termination, and that with abun- 
dant rains the welfare of Australia may be resuscitated, and 
the years of drought and failure be followed by a long season 
of plenty and prosperity. 

The great drawback during these past five years has 
been the absolute want of water. The Engineers are confi- 
dent that in the great basin of internal Australia there is a 



11 



magnificent storage of Artesian water at varying depths^ 
and, in fact, many wells have been sunk with favourable 
results. But the problem to be solved is the irrigation of the 
land ; the water may be brought to the surface, and the sheep 
and cattle may obtain the necessary supply, but that will not 
cause the vegetation to live and flourish to provide food as 
well as drink. To irrigate by canals and water-courses is 
very well in theory, but how can it be carried out in practice ? 
The expense would be enormous, and in the climate of 
Australia the loss by evaporation in reservoirs and canals 
would equally be enormous. The conservation and utilization 
of the water supply has yet to be effected. 

Along the course of the Darling-Murray River some 
attempts to carry out schemes of irrigation have been made, 
but not, up to the present, with much success. Following 
the precedent set in South California, irrigation has been 
introduced, resulting in the cultivation of oranges, lemons, 
and many fruits and vegetables, but after all the attempt has 
not been on a very large scale, and its success is not great, 
evidently more capital and engineering facilities are required. 

The great want of water has been felt in another part of 
Australia under quite different circumstances. In this case 
it was not the question of flocks and herds languishing for 
want of food and water — it was the need of hardy miners 
seeking to win from the bowels of the earth the mineral 
wealth, but stopped in their careeer for want of this great 
necessity of life — Water— not only for their own sustenance, 
but also for the successful manipulation of the ore discovered. 

In Western Australia, a large area of gold fields was 
discovered at Coolgardie, some 360 miles in the interior — a 
waterless area — and although every facility was given by the 
Government to develop the gold fields by way of transit by 
railway, &c, the one thing needed for the full development 
of the area was water. Following the theory that there was 
an ample supply of underground water to be had for the tap- 
ping, bores were made to the depth of 3,000 feet, but nothing 
came of it. The substratum was merely granite, granite, 
granite ; and, after wasting much energy and expense, the 
Artesian well theory was abandoned, and attention turned 
to bringing the water supply from the nearest available source 
by means of an acqueduct. 



12 



A scheme was therefore prepared by the engineers for 
bringing the water 360 miles from the neighbourhood of 
Freemantle by means of an acqueduct, not such as we see 
the remains of in the Roman Campagna on stately arches, 
but in the more prosaic form of steel pipes some 30 inches in 
diameter, and following the contour of the intervening country. 
In order to detect readily any leakages in the pipes, it was 
proposed to lay them on the ground, not underground, 
probably in a concrete bed, and for general convenience the 
course of the railway from Freemantle to Coolgardie was to 
be followed as far as practicable. Naturally in the course of 
360 miles there are many variations in the levels, and it was 
therefore found necessary to provide for eight pumping 
stations, with accompanying reservoirs, into which the water 
would be pumped prior to the flow proceeding. The steel 
pipes, for the sake of economy of freight, were to be shipped 
as flat plates, some 9 to 10 feet in length, and of sufficient 
width to be curved into pipes of the required diameter. 
Provisions for the closing and rivetting of these plates, and for 
the junctions of the sections of pipe, so as to make them 
secure against leakage, were thoroughly made by the Engin- 
eers, and if the matter is successfully completed, this 
acqueduct ought to be a model for future operations of a like 
character. 

This scheme for the supply of water to the gold-fields of 
Coolgardie is only calculated to provide 5,000,000 gallons per 
diem. Compare that with the 212,000,000 gallons required 
for the daily supply of the Metropolitan area. The distance 
that the water is to be transmitted — 360 miles — far exceeds 
anything that has been accomplished in this country, notably 
the supplies of Glasgow and Manchester, and is much more 
than double the distance of any proposed supply of London 
from Wales. The cost of the Coolgardie water supply has 
been estimated at ^2,500,000. The works are far advanced, 
and it is expected, as is usual, that the estimated cost will be 
exceeded when the scheme is complete. 

To revert to the great internal reservoir of water which 
is confidently asserted to exist in the sub-strata of Australia, 
the question has arisen as to the source of its supply; taking 
into account the moderate rainfall generally on the Continent, 
and the practical absence of mountainous areas for collection 
of such rainfall, and the theory started is that the mountains 



13 



of New Guinea and other adjacent islands are the real sources 
of the water supply of Australia, through the strata under- 
lying the channels separating the great Continent from the 
Islands of the Malay Archipelago, and this theory is certainly 
feasible when it is remembered that geological researches 
point to the junction, in bygone ages, of the Continent of 
Australia with the Islands of the Archipelago, and even with 
the Peninsula of India itself ; while it is pointed out, I 
think in Wallace's charming book on the Malay Archipelago, 
that the Straits between Australia and the principal Islands 
are by no means deep, and in fact that the soundings give 
abundant evidence in support of the theory of primeval 
junction by land. 

In these few remarks water has been principally regarded 
from the point of view of its necessity for human needs, 
although incidentally its necessity for the growth of the 
products of the soil has been touched upon. There would 
appear to be in the future a great field for utilising the force 
of water for mechanical purposes. Already the forces of the 
Falls of Niagara are called into requisition for the production 
of electrical power, and the progress of electrical science will 
in all probability be accompanied by a corresponding exten- 
sion in the utilisation of the great natural forces of water. 

These remarks, however, would be incomplete without 
some reference to the " vasty deep," the great reservoir of 
water, the mighty Ocean which covers three-fifths of the 
surface of the globe. What do we not owe to the Ocean, the 
source from which we primarily obtain all this wonderful 
supply of water so absolutely necessary for our existence ; 
the great highway, by traversing which we can reach every 
part of the earth ; the great purifier, health-giver, and health- 
restorer. Finally, what do we not owe to the Ocean, seeing 
that by its existence these Sea-girt Islands have for more 
than 800 years been free from the foot of the invader — one of 
the great elements in the firm establishment and prosperity 
of this, the heart of the British Empire. 



14 



TOWN-PLANTING, AND THE TREES AND SHRUBS 
BEST ADAPTED FOR WITHSTANDING SMOKE. 

BY 

A. D. WEBSTER, F.R.S.E. 



To those whose lot is cast in or near our more important 
centres of industry, this subject is of vast importance, and 
one which, at the present time, occupies a large share of 
public attention. 

The surprise experienced by most persons in this 
country on first visiting any of the larger continental cities — 
Paris, Brussels, or Berlin, and where street-planting would 
seem to be considered as a matter of paramount importance 
— is great indeed, and invariably leads to the somewhat 
pertinent question : " Why cannot we make our cities 
beautiful by planting suitable trees and shrubs ? " No doubt 
there are a few drawbacks to be encountered in so doing, but 
that very much more might be accomplished than has 
hitherto been done is clearly evident to those who have 
devoted even a small share of attention to the matter. 

The atmosphere of our larger towns and cities — London, 
Glasgow, Liverpool, Manchester, and Sheffield — is, it must 
be candidly admitted, impregnated to a far greater extent 
with noxious fumes and vapours, than is that of any of the 
continental towns above mentioned, and, therefore, the 
difficulty of establishing many trees and shrubs is corres- 
pondingly increased. 

Observations and experiments carried on during the last 
fifteen years in three of the largest towns in Britain — 
London, Glasgow, and Liverpool (a trial garden was for this 
express purpose instituted in one of the most smoky districts 
of East London) — have clearly proved, however, that there 
are not a few trees and shrubs well suited for withstanding 
even the deleterious effects of the impurest of town 
atmospheres. 



15 



Not for one moment do I wish it to be inferred that 
there are not certain districts — to wit, the environs of the 
Lambeth potteries, and some of our large chemical works — 
where, do what we will, vegetation, be it of whatever kind, 
will not succeed ; but as we recede from these centres of 
sickness and death, particular trees and shrubs flourish 
amazingly, and no better example can be pointed out than 
the healthy and rapid-growing specimens that adorn the 
Thames Embankment, and which are removed but a very 
short distance indeed from one of the barrenest and most 
miserable of the city suburbs, the pottery district. 

That certain trees and shrubs succeed best in particular 
towns is another strange fact, for, curious as it may seem, 
the smoke-proof London plane is by no means the best tree 
for either Liverpool or Warrington, particularly the former 
town, where the sycamore has been found to be far better 
adapted. In the very centre of Sheffield the Canadian poplar 
has been found to be by far the most useful tree, while in 
some of the worst localities in the colliery districts, the 
chesnut and variegated-leaved sycamore are the greatest 
favourites. Even the rhododendron does well in the most 
smoky parts of the town of Bury, Lancashire. No better 
example could be adduced of how certain trees favour certain 
towns, than two or three kinds of poplars which grow with 
unabated vigour at Gatley, a small town near Manchester ; 
while at Bury, about equally distant on the other side of the 
city, they positively refuse to grow, and that, too, after man}' 
unsuccessful attempts to get them established. 

Neither the rhododendron nor the laurel are at all 
suitable for the smoky districts of London, but casual 
observers may form a different opinion, from the appearance 
of such of these shrubs as are replanted annually, the semi- 
sickly subjects being replaced at stated times by those that 
are fresh and vigorous. In the smoky and impure 
(chemically) atmosphere of Glasgow, the thorn and beam 
trees [Pyrus), as also several kinds of Retinospora, thrive 
amazingly, much better than they do in any of the large 
English towns. 

Why certain trees and shrubs succeed best in particular 
districts or towns is, perhaps, readily enough explained by 
the conditions of soil and situation, as well as the particular 
nd ustry of the inhabitants. Coal smoke from the multitu- 



16 



dinous chimneys of our larger centres of industry is, no doubt,, 
bad enough ; but when we have to contend with an atmos- 
phere largely impregnated with the outcome from chemical,, 
gas, or iron works, the difficulties to be encountered are great 
indeed. 

Preparation of the Ground and Planting. — In 
order that success may crown the effort, it may truly be said 
that no work of the horticulturist requires more skill and 
good management than the proper planting of trees alongside 
streets and avenues. 

The material with which roads are usually made up are 
ill-fitted for sustaining a healthy condition in trees, at least 
for any great length of time, and this is well known to those 
who have taken an interest in the matter — broken stones, 
clinkers and gravel, affording but small support for vegetation, 
be it of whatever kind, but particularly large-growing trees 
and shrubs. Many failures in street-planting from this very 
cause might be pointed out, and in not a few cases the future 
result will certainly be discreditable to all concerned, simply 
because the work has not been properly done. 

In crowded streets and squares, where the air is vitiated 
with impurities, and the soil hard and often surcharged with 
gaseous matter, tree-planting is often a different matter to 
what it is along the side of a field. In the latter case it may 
be sufficient to open a small pit, insert the tree and stake it, 
but in our large towns the case is totally different, for the 
soil, hard as iron, and composed mainly of clinkers and 
shingle, affords but little nourishment to a rapid-growing 
tree, and one that, moreover, has to do battle above ground 
with the deleterious effects of an impure atmosphere. 
Another fruitful cause of failure in street-planting is placing 
the pavement above the roots, and in too close proximity to 
the stems. The roots should always be allowed plenty of 
breathing room, and to effect this a good-sized space should 
be railed off around each tree, and no pavement laid within 
it. In so doing a double benefit is conferred, by allowing 
free access of rain to the roots, and avoiding the accumulation 
of noxious gases in the ground (as has been proved to be the 
case when closed pavement has been used) which are 
inimical to the welfare of the trees. 

In proof of what is said, we may refer to the trees at the 
Chelsea end of the Thames Enbankment, which have been 



17 



planted as above directed, and that success has amply 
crowned the effort cannot be denied, for certainly that noble 
avenue has no equal in any British town. 

Where street trees are to be planted, a good-sized patch 
of ground — say, at least six feet in diameter and four feet in 
depth — should be thoroughly broken up, and if the soil is of 
inferior quality, which will assuredly be so in 90 per cent, of 
the pits, good fresh loam should be substituted. By under- 
mining the sides of the pits a much larger receptacle for the 
fresh soil will be formed, and this will not occasion so much 
of the footway and pavement being torn up as if the pits were 
of equal diameter top and bottom. The plants used should 
be such as have been specially prepared for the purpose, by 
being frequently transplanted for some years previous to 
being placed in their final position. They should be stout, 
stocky, well-rooted, clean, and from six feet to eight feet in 
height. 

In planting, spread the roots well out around the stem, 
and do not bury too deeply, the mark visible on the stem as 
to how deep the trees stood in the nursery border, being the 
best criterion to go by. As regards the best time to plant 
town trees opinions differ ; but there can be little doubt that 
spring is preferable, for the good reason that, as they start 
into growth at once, they are not so likely to suffer from 
smoke and other deleterious affections as if they remained 
during the winter in an inactive condition. 

Staking the trees so as to prevent rocking by the wind, 
and consequent damage to the roots, should be set about 
immediately planting is finished. Circumstances will be the 
best guide as to how this should be done, but it is generally 
found necessary, even when the trees are surrounded with 
iron railings, to drive a stout stake firmly unto the ground on 
the windward side, and as close to the stem of the tree as 
possible. To this the tree should be made fast with teased- 
out tarred rope, and to avoid friction the rope may be crossed 
between the stem and stake. 

These simple matters connected with the preparation of 
the ground, planting and staking, are so important in town- 
planting, that they should never be lost sight of, for while 
they add but little to the cost, the advantage gained is very 
great. 



18 



Advantages of Town Trees. — Not onlv for the cheer- 
ful aspect produced by trees when planted alongside streets 
and thoroughfares, but also from a sanitary point of view, 
they are of special value and importance. That a quantity 
of healthy-growing foliage has a wonderful effect in purifying 
the atmosphere is a recognised fact, and certainly far more 
than compensates for any damage to health that might be 
occasioned by its decay in autumn. Bearing on the question 
of trees in towns, Dr. Phene, at the Social Science Congress 
at Edinburgh, remarked as follows : — 

" To the occupants of houses in streets having a northern 
aspect, the glare of reflected light is injurious ; but the effect 
would be much modified by the coolness to the eye produced 
by the green of trees. In ancient surgery, persons having 
weak or declining sight were advised to look at the emerald. 
In the old style of building, the streets being narrow, were 
both cooler, from the sun not being able to penetrate there 
with direct rays, and less subject to noxious exhalations from 
the scouring and purifying effects of the scorching air to 
which narrow streets were subject, so that while there was 
no space for trees, there was also less necessity. Wide 
streets, on the contrary, are hotter, and require the shade of 
trees to cool them, and, as in the case of London, which has 
so far done to a great extent without trees in its streets, not 
only are modern streets compulsory wide, but the enormous 
increase in the Metropolitan buildings renders every sanitary 
question one of importance, and the chemical properties of 
trees, as shown by experiment, gives them an important 
standing on that ground, irrespective of ornament or the 
pleasure they produce. But that which is important in such 
localities is more imperatively demanded in poorer districts 
on the score of health, as during the last year alone 21,000 
new houses were erected in London, producing 400 streets, 
with 71 miles and 468 yards of promenade." 

Excessive Planting and Choice of Trees. — Exces- 
sive planting should certainly be guarded against, but a point 
of far greater importance is the suiting of the trees to the 
positions they are to occupy. Planting the plane, poplar, 
lime, and such like trees of giant growth in narrow, confined 
streets, is a crying evil, and should not be tolerated, par- 
ticularly with such numbers of moderate-sized specimens at 
command that have proved themselves particularly suitable 



19 



for withstanding the deleterious effects of an impure town 
atmosphere. The lime is, perhaps, one of the most cruelly 
treated of all suburban London trees, for the lopping and 
beheading to which it is annually subjected, and which it 
bravely tries to resent, strikes every lover of the natural 
with feelings of regret and shame that so noble and beautiful 
a tree should be so tortured and disfigured. For the first 
dozen years after being planted in its restricted space it looks 
everything that could be desired, but when the boundary 
limit is attained, the windows darkened, the patch of garden 
rendered useless by the overhanging branches, and the 
pedestrian on the footpath annoyed, then comes the retri- 
bution, and the saw and the pruning-knife are brought into 
request, and the stalwart, beautiful sapling elbowed in, mop- 
headed, or contorted into some unnatural or ungraceful 
shape. 

By planting at the first such moderate-sized and equally 
beautiful and appropriate specimens as the Robina viscosa, 
the mulberry, mountain ash, and beam tree, Indian bean 
(Calalpa), or the beautiful flowering cherries and thorns, all 
this yearly pruning and keeping in check of noble growth 
would be avoided. The plane tree, too, is badly damaged in 
man}/ of the London thoroughfares, and when, through 
indiscriminate planting, pruning of the branches has to be 
resorted to, this is usually performed in the most slovenly 
and unscientific manner, and has, in not a few instances, led 
to a diseased and unhealthy state of the trees operated 
upon. 

It would certainly be well were more care in planting 
and pruning bestowed on the London trees ; but as the 
subject has been discussed, and the evils pointed out at 
intervals during the past quarter of a century, we need hardly 
hope for a much-needed reform at present. 

TREES. 

The Oriental or Common London Plane (Platanus 
orientalis acerifolia). — This variety of the Oriental plane stands 
first in the category of select town trees. Not only does it 
grow vigorously in towns, but it is peculiarly well adapted 
for withstanding the smoke and other impurities of their 
atmosphere. Repeated experiments have clearly proved that 
in London this tree flourishes better than any other, and a 



20 



visit to the Thames Embankment and several other of the 
urban districts, will substantiate the statement ; while the 
fine old tree which still exists at Cheapside, and the equally 
beautiful specimen, which has hardly room for perfect 
development, in the Court of Stationers' Hall, Ludgate Hill, 
or those in Staple Court, High Holborn, afford other 
examples of how well-suited this handsome tree is for doing 
battle with the smoke and impurities of the great Metropolis. 
As a diversity of opinion has existed about which variety of 
plane it is that grows with such vigour in and around 
London, it may be stated that on a careful examination of a 
large number of specimens, the variety P.O. acerifolia was 
found not only more commonly distributed, but likewise 
better suited for town-planting than the typical P. orientalis. 
This valuable variety is readily distinguished from the normal 
plant by the less deeply divided leaves, and from the 
American plane (P. occidentalis), with which it is not infre- 
quently confounded, by the many fruit " balls " which are 
attached to each peduncle, the fertile catkins of P. occiden- 
talis being for the greater part produced singly. 

But not only for its value as a town-tree is the Oriental 
plane much sought after, for the giant proportions to which 
it attains, coupled with the handsome, finely-cut leaves and 
easy habit of growth, renders it one of our most desirable 
ornamental trees. Then it is of the easiest culture, succeed- 
ing extremely well in soils of the very opposite qualities.. 
Taking everything into consideration, we question much 
whether any other of our forest trees is of a greater or even 
epual value with the plane for town -planting. 

The Maidenhair Tree {Ginkgo biloba). — A prolonged 
visit to the very worst smoke-infested slums of London, has 
now quite convinced me that the maidenhair or ginkgo tree 
is one of the most valuable that can be planted in the im- 
pure atmosphere of a town garden. Few trees, I am fully 
aware, can compare with the one in question for withstand- 
ing the deleterious effects produced on vegetation generally 
by coming in too close contact with the impurities of our 
great centres of industry. The ample delicate green foliage 
betrays — even late in the season, and when about to be cast 
off — little evidence of the fierce struggle that must almost 
constantly go on between vegetation and the smoke and filth 
of our towns and cities. That the thick leathery leaves and 



21 



strong constitution of the tree play an important part in 
keeping it free from disease is clearly evident, while the fact 
of the leaves being renewed annually must go a long way 
towards casting off the sooty nodules which work such havoc 
on the tender foliage of most trees. 

At no less than five places in and around the great 
Metropolis — and such places, too, where one is almost stifled 
with the fumes from chimneys — the maidenhair tree may be 
seen almost in as fresh and flourishing a condition as those 
enviable specimens on the Isle of Man ; indeed, about as 
large trunks as can be seen anywhere are growing in the 
smoke of Chelsea. Not only as a standard tree is the maiden- 
hair valuable, but it is also one of the prettiest wall plants 
with which I am acquainted, and how many bare, ugly 
erections of brick and stone in our city streets want a bit of 
greenery, I would not like to say. 

The Ailanthus, or Tree of Heaven (Ailanthus 
glandulosa), may be seen in a flourishing condition in many 
of the London streets and byeways. By its rich green 
spreading foliage, the Ailanthus is, during the summer 
months, a great favourite with lovers of sylvan scenery, the 
leaves in many cases reaching to a length of fully two feet. 
It is a tree of very rapid growth when suitably placed as 
regards soil and situation, shoots nearly two feet being often 
produced in a season. 

It has been largely planted in many Continental cities, 
and has proved itself one of the few trees that are capable of 
withstanding the impurities of a town atmosphere. The 
greenish white, inconspicuous flowers, are freely produced, 
and are succeeded by innumerable fruits resembling the keys 
of the ash, but of a reddish-brown colour, which imports to 
the tree a wealth of autumn glory that we, unfortunately^ 
are seldom permitted to witness in this country. 

The Weeping Ash (Fraxinus excelsior pendula). — 
Within a stone's-throw of Liverpool Street Railway Station, 
and hemmed in by bricks and mortar, may be seen one of the 
handsomest and healthiest members of the ash family that 
could probably be found in the great Metropolis. The 
particular specimen in question is the dwarf weeping ash 
{Fraxinus excelsior pendula) which forms during summer a 
hemispherical head of the brightest pea-green foliage — a 



glaring contrast to the too oft-repeated yellowish hue of the 
London plane. But this is not the only place in town where 
during the past summer we have been charmed with the 
delightful freshness of the tree in question, for in many of 
the most smoke- infested quarters, and where even the 
famous plane looks sear and sickly, the weeping ash forms a 
noble specimen of the most refreshing green. There are 
many forms of the so-called weeping ash, but that of dwarf 
is most to be recommended for doing battle with the 
deleterious effects of a city atmosphere. It likewise with- 
stands long-continued heat and drought in a most remarkable 
manner, in that respect being only equalled by the false 
acacia and Indian bean — two of the very best trees for dry 
and warm summers. 

The Black Italian Poplar (Populus monilifera). — 
Next to the plane amongst forest trees, I consider the black 
Italian poplar to be the most valuable for planting in smoky 
towns. As a proof of this, there are to be seen numerous 
fine specimens of this tree in a flourishing condition, and 
clothed with the most healthy foliage, in some of our largest 
cities — to wit, London, Glasgow and Liverpool. The black 
Italian poplar may be somewhat stiff in outline, but there is, 
nevertheless, an air of grace about it that is wanting in 
any other tree I can bring to mind. It is a tree of readiest 
culture, while, as to its rate of growth, a specimen of 
100 feet in height has attained to that size in less than sixty 
years. The wood, unless for a few special purposes, such as 
cart bottoms, brakes, &c, is not of great value ; but the 
tree is, nevertheless, a profitable timber-producer when 
grown in suitable soils. 

The Canadian Poplar (P. canadensis) and its variety, 
P. c. nova, are excellent trees for planting is smoky localities. 
The former succeeds admirably in the very centre of 
Sheffield, in the old Parish Churchard, where for hundreds 
of yards away not a particle of living vegetation is to be 
seen. The variety nova is a very superior tree for street- 
planting, it being far more ornamental and of more rapid 
growth than the black Italian poplar, and equally reliable 
for retaining a healthy and flourishing condition under the 
adverse circumstances connected with a town atmosphere. 
How well it succeeds may be seen in the beautiful avenue 



23 



that was formed of it, and the Oriental plane, some years 
ago at Wimbledon Park. 

The Abele Poplar (Populus alba) grows with great 
freedom where subjected to smoke and foul air. In the very- 
heart of our largest towns, it may be seen flourishing in a 
manner that is almost incredible. It is a pretty tree, the 
distinct cut, ample leaves, with their collony under surface, 
being at all times, but especially when agitated by the wind, 
most interesting, and causing the tree to rank amongst the 
most ornamental of its kind. It is readily propagated, 
transplants freely, grows rapidly, and is neither subject to 
disease, nor particular as to the soil in which it is planted. 

The Lombardy Poplar (P. fastigiata) is another tree 
that has been planted with some success in and around 
many of our largest cities, but it cannot equal any of the 
foregoing for withstanding the baneful effects of a tainted 
atmosphere. In the outskirts of towns, where the air is 
purer than amid chimneys pouring forth their volumes of 
smoke, the Lombardy poplar succeeds fairly well, and 
imparts an air of grandeur that could hardly otherwise be 
obtained. 

The Cucumber Tree {Magnolia acuminata). — Few- 
planters are aware of how valuable the cucumber tree is for 
withstanding the grime and soot of large towns. Experi- 
ments have, however, resulted in this highly ornamental 
and fast-growing tree being added to the list. Its ample 
foliage, yellowish-white fragrant flowers, and general contour, 
eminently fit it for a first place as a town tree. Soil of 
ordinary quality suits its general wants, although it prefers 
a strong, yellowish, moist loam. 

The Tulip Tree (Liriodendron tulipifeva). — Excellent 
examples are not wanting of how valuable a tree Liriodendron 
tulipifera is for towns and streets. It seems to have a 
wonderful recuperative nature, for scorched, blackened, and 
encrusted as may appear the falling of foliage, yet in the 
following spring it again puts forth a garb of the freshest 
and richest greenery, The remarkable four-lobed, truncate 
leaves render this tree almost without an equal for orna- 
mental planting, while its undoubted smoke-resisting 
qualities place it high in the rank of town trees. It is not 
particular as to soil. 



24 



The Indian Bean {Catalpa bignonioides). — For various 
reasons this fast-growing tree is to be recommended for 
planting in smoky localities. It grows with vigour in many 
smoky centres, as in the Middle Temple Gardens, near the 
Houses of Parliament, and at Chiswick and Camden Town ; is 
a tree of handsome proportions, and when fully established, 
flowers freely. The violet-white of the petals of the flowers is 
well set off by the purple and yellow of the throat. A valuable 
trait in the character of the Indian bean is that should 
accident befall it, and the stem get injured, numerous strong 
suckers are produced, which, as they grow with great 
rapidity, soon take the place of the original. Few soils 
come amiss to it. 

The Common Mulberry (Moms nigra) and the white- 
fruited form [M. alba) may be seen growing satisfactorily in 
several of the old gardens and nurseries of the Metropolis, 
and where they are now buried alive, as might be said, in 
stones and mortar. That they are excellent town trees will 
be admitted by everybody who sees the fine specimens in 
Liverpool and Manchester. 

The Honey Locust (Gleditschia triacanthos), is a tall 
spreading tree, one of great beauty, and a very suitable 
subject for planting in smoky localities. In many of the 
worst smoke- infested parts of London and Manchester are 
seen goodly specimens of this handsome tree ; not poor, 
miserable trees, but from their great size, wealth of foliage, 
and general appearance, betoken perfect health amid their 
rather adverse surroundings. It grows very freely even 
when rather carelessly planted, and in soil of inferior quality. 
In autumn the long fruit-pods give to the honey locust a 
distinct and curious appearance. 

The False Acacia (Robinia Pseud-acacia). — Probably 
no other tree can compare with the False Acacia for with- 
standing the prolonged heat and drought of our larger centres 
of industry, a fact that has been brought forcibly home to us 
by the behaviour of these both in France and England during 
the present and past unusually warm summers. When the 
whole of the ordinary vegetation is burnt up, the lime and 
elm looking seared and sickly, and the holly dying out in 
quantity by the long-continued drought and heat, the acacia 
stands nobly out in all its freshness of branch and leaf, and, 
if anything, blooms all the more freely for the scorching and 



25 



want of moisture to which it is subjected. Almost by the 
hundred can the false acacia be seen in London and many 
other English towns, thus proving that it is one of the most 
valuable trees that we possess for withstanding the injurious 
effects of an impure atmosphere. It is, likewise, one of the 
most ornamental of trees, the great wealth of pure white 
flowers, and beautiful pea-green foliage, being of the richest 
description. 

What renders this acacia of great value as a town tree 
is that it retains its rich verdure till late on in autumn. It 
grows freely in almost any soil, reproducing itself in suitable 
positions, and soon forms a handsome tree of almost giant 
proportions. The most suitable for town-planting are the 
upright-growing and free-flowering kinds. The varieties 
known as decaisneana, microphylla, sophoraefolia, and the up- 
right-habited are most to be desired. 

The White Beam Tree (Pyrus aria). — In many of the 
confined spaces in Glasgow, the white beam tree grows 
luxuriantly, and produces annually great quantities of its 
bright-coloured berries. The creamy white of the under 
side of the leaves is particularly attractive when agitated by 
the wind, and the wealth of small white flowers is a treat to 
behold. Few trees are more readily suited with soil, for it 
may be found, in a state of nature, growing on dry lime-stone 
rocks, where there is scarcely a particle of soil. 

The Lime (Tilia Europcza). — Where it is not too con- 
fined, and where soot and smoke do not abound, the lime 
may and does succeed ; but when used in the worst parts of 
the Metropolis, it soon shows signs of distress, the tips of 
the branches dying off, and the whole tree, sooner or later, 
showing the fierce struggle it has to endure with smoke and 
fumes. As an avenue tree, in the more airy and pure parts 
of a town, the lime has certainly few equals, its general 
contour and the pleasing shade it affords, being points of 
special recommendation. 

The Sycamore (Acer Pseudo platanus). — This tree may 
be classed as amongst the most useful for planting in smoky 
towns. In Wanington, where the noxious emanations 
from alkali and other chemical works are most disastrous in 
their effect upon trees and shrubs, the sycamore is one of 
the few that grow satisfactorily. Being a rapid and strong 



26 



grower, it is thus seen to be, for a certain time at least, 
unaffected by its inimical surroundings. The variegated 
variety would seem from recent experiments to be preferable 
and better adapted for smoky localities than the normal form. 

The Horse Chestnut {Msculus Hippocastanum) and the 
English Elm (Ulmus campestve) may be seen in a fairly 
satisfactory way in many town parks, but only where they 
are not exposed to smoke and soot to any great extent. In 
confined spaces both these trees soon show signs of distress, 
the points of the branches gradually becoming unhealthy, 
and the trees ultimately dying off prematurely. Taking 
everything into consideration, neither of these trees can be 
recommended for planting in smoky districts, though in the 
more open parts, as in Hyde and Regent's Park, they last for 
a long time, and attain a good old age. 

The Birch, Walnut, Hornbeam, and one or two 
kinds of Willow will succeed in the less smoky parts of a 
town ; but they are not to be recommended for planting 
where the air is constantly impregnated with soot and dust. 

The Mountain Ash, or Rowan Tree (Pyrus aucuparia), 
has proved itself to be a valuable small growing tree for 
planting in urban districts. It is also a tree of great beauty, 
whether in flower or fruit, one that grows almost anywhere, 
and with a minimum of attention, in many town streets 
where the air is vitiated with fumes, the mountain ash grows 
with great freedom. 

The Alder (Alnus cordifolia). — In this we have a good 
addition to the few trees that are really suitable for town- 
planting, for it grows with vigour, and retains much of its 
fresh, spring-tide greeness in very smoky and impure 
localities. Of hardy constitution, and unusually strong 
growth, it seems to defy the sooty emanations from 
hundreds of chimneys in two, at least, of our largest centres 
of industry. 

The Bird Cherry (Cerasus Padus) may be classed 
amongst the most valuable of our town trees. It is a robust- 
growing and bright-flowering small tree. Few soils come 
amiss to it, and even where it is hemmed in by taller 
growing trees and constantly subjected to their drip, it grows 
and blooms with the greatest of freedom. In many of the 



L>7 



back streets and slums of London may be seen well-grown 
specimens, which clearly demonstrate how well suited it is 
for withstanding smoke and dust. 

The Sugar Maple (Acer saccharinum) is a handsome, 
hardy, and fast-growing tree of moderate dimensions, and 
one that can justly claim a place in any list of town 
trees. It will not succeed where constantly subjected to 
smoke and fumes, but planted in the suburban districts it 
soon forms a really handsome and distinct tree. 

Sophora japonica is worthy of recommendation as a tree 
that is admirably suited for planting in towns. It is of large 
and rapid growth, with elegant dark green pinnate leaves. 
Being a native of China and Japan, it may not be perfectly 
hardy in the colder portions of the British Isles, but it 
succeeds well in southern England and Ireland, and it thrives 
admirably in the most smoke-infested parts of London. 

Thorns of various kinds succeed in town parks and 
gardens, but they are not to be recommended for the most 
smoky and confined localities. In Glasgow, however, I have 
noticed how well suited for planting in the squares and 
public gardens many forms of the thorn are ; indeed, even in 
London, and where smoke and dust are by no means 
wanting, they gladden the eye with their wealth of flowers 
and bright green leaves. The single and double scarlet 
would seem to be best adapted for withstanding soot and 
smoke ; and these may not infrequently be seen of large size 
and in perfect health. 

The Tansy-leaved Thorn (Crataegus tanacetifolia) is 
another excellent member of the family for town-planting. 
A noble example may be seen near the entrance to the 
Glasgow Botanic Garden. 

The English Yew {Taxus baccata) can hardly be 
recommended as a suitable tree for smoky localities, although 
in suburban districts it grows freely, and there forms a dense, 
healthy, dark green mass. From this it must not, however, 
be inferred that the yew cannot survive in smoky towns, for 
it grows freely wherever it is not subjected to an inordinate 
amount of atmospheric impurities. Soil of fairly good quality 
should be used when planting the yew, particularly where 
the surroundings are unfavourable. 



28 



Hollies of various kinds are very suitable for planting in 
cities, but they are not to be recommended for using in 
densely-populated districts. For a time they may and do 
succeed, but they ultimately begin to show signs of distress 
by the tips of the branches dying off bit by bit. The dwarf 
variety of the common holly is one of the best for smoky 
districts, where it grows freely, and looks bright and healthy, 
often in most objectionable quarters. It succeeds much 
better than any of the others in the London squares and 
parks, while it is valuable in the more confined parts of 
Liverpool and Manchester. In Glasgow and Edinburgh it 
also grows freely. 

Two other species at least do well where they are not 
subjected to an inordinate amount of smoke. These are, 
J. Balearica and /. Hodginsii, two very distinct and desirable 
hollies. 

SHRUBS. 

Of these there are several kinds that are suitable for 
planting in smoky localities. Evidently deciduous species 
possess an advantage over evergreen kinds in the total 
annual renewal of their leaves ; and hence it may follow 
that, as with trees, deciduous shrubs should have the 
preference. 

The following includes only such kinds as have been 
proved suitable for town-planting : — 

The Bladder Senna. — This curious and ornamental 
shrub, known botanically as Colutea arborescens, may be seen 
in unusually good form on the railway embankment of the 
London and South-Western Railway nearly all the way from 
Clapham Junction to Wimbledon, but particularly near the 
latter place. 

Many passengers seem puzzled as to what is the name 
of the shrub with the inflated bladder-like pods, and which, 
from being tinged with red, add no little to the peculiar 
aspect and beauty of the plant. 

It is a shrub of the readiest culture, and one that will 
succeed well on the poorest of soils, and is perfectly hardy 
in every part of these isles. For planting in smoky districts, 
it is an especial favourite, the bright foliage and yellow pea- 
shaped flowers, which are succeeded by the curious bladder- 



29 



like fruit covering, being special points of attraction. It is 
of South European origin, and has been known in this 
country, at least, from the days of Parkinson, where, in his 
" Paradisus," he speaks of it as the " greater bastard senna 
with bladders." Being readily raised from seed, and of the 
simplest culture, it should make owners of waste ornamental 
ground, where the soil is not of first-rate quality, plant it in 
numbers, for certainly a more curious or interesting specimen 
is not to be found in the whole range of hardy shrubs. 

Osmantkus ilicifolius is one of the handsomest of ever- 
green shrubs, and also one of the few that succeed in a 
satisfactory way when subjected to the impurities of a town 
atmosphere. In the smokiest districts of both London and 
Liverpool, it is unquestionably the best all-round shrub. 
The holly-like leaves are thick and of firm substance, and 
the inconspicuous yellowish-green flowers are also much like 
those of the holly. 

Ligustvum coriaceum is a fitting companion to the last, 
so far, at least, as its powers for withstanding the effects of 
impure atmosphere are concerned. Being an evergreen, it 
is peculiarly well suited for planting in the town garden, 
where it grows with great freedom. It is easily managed, 
not particular as regards soil, is readily increased, and bears 
trimming-in with perfect impunity. 

Aucuba japonica. — This well-known evergreen shrub is 
of great value for planting in urban districts, it being able to 
do battle with a more than ordinary amount of atmospheric 
impurities. For this reason it has been largely planted in 
town squares and gardens in the most crowded and densely 
populated parts. 

As an ornamental shrub, too, the Aucuba is well worthy 
of extensive culture, its fine, large, glossy, and beautifully 
mottled leaves being at all times objects of admiration. It 
is easily raised from cuttings, and grows with great freedom 
in any soil. 

Griselinia littoralis. — Although a little-known evergreen, 
this is well suited for town-planting ; experiments have 
proved it a most valuable addition to the limited number of 
shrubs suitable for such a purpose. The appearance of the 
plant, with its deep, green, glossy, and somewhat succulent 



30 



leaves, is most pleasing ; and as it grows freely in ordinary 
soil, and is readily propagated, it is to be hoped that it will 
receive the notice it is fairly entitled to as a valuable hardy 
shrub. 

Hibiscus syriacus is one of our most valuable late autumn 
flowering shrubs, and is also one of the few that can success- 
fully battle with an impure atmosphere. In many parts of 
London, where the air is vitiated by emanations from factory 
chimneys, this pretty shrub is seen in perfect health, with 
plenty of foliage of the richest description, and quite a 
wealth of showy flowers. It grows freely in ordinary soil. 
It may be trimmed in at pleasure, and withstands frost 
perfectly. It is a shrub which town residents should plant 
freely, if they have a bit of ground that they want to look 
pretty. 

The Wayfaring Tree (Viburnum Lantana). — This valu- 
able shrub does not receive that amount of attention which 
its merits entitle it to. It succeeds well in some of the 
most filthy and smoky districts of our largest cities. It 
blooms with great freedom, and the flowers are succeeded 
by the brightest and showiest of berries. It is readily 
propagated, and no soil comes amiss to it. 

The Venetian Sumach (Rhus cotinus). — This is a much 
neglected shrub, but for general usefulness can hardly be 
surpassed. It is highly ornamental, whether in flower or 
fruit, the feathery inflorescence rendering it of quaint and 
curious appearance, particularly when a well-grown plant is 
under notice. It is peculiarly well suited for planting in 
cities. A sound loam, neither too damp nor yet too dry, 
suits it to perfection. 

The Stag's Horn Sumach (Rhus typhina) must on no 
account be omitted, as it is a plant of pretty and curious 
appearance, grows with freedom, and is as hardy as could be 
desired. 

Leycesteria formosa is a beautiful hardy shrub, with 
hollow stems, large ornate leaves, and white or purplish 
flowers in pendulous racemes. More conspicuous than the 
flowers are the deep purple foliaceous bracts, which import 
to the shrub a distinct and very ornamental appearance. It 
is a capital town plant, shooting out fresh and green after 
being subjected to a winter's incessant fumes from the 



chimneys of the great Metropolis. It is perfectly hardy, of 
free growth, readily propagated, and altogether a valuable 
shrub. 

The Flowering Currant (Ribes sanguineum). — Too 
much praise can hardly be bestowed on this handsome free- 
flowering shrub for the planting of town gardens and shrub- 
beries. There it succeeds to perfection, and flowers with the 
greatest freedom. In early spring it breaks out fresh and 
strong, regardless of the noxious fumes and impure 
atmosphere. Well-planted at first, it rarely fails, striking 
out its roots far and wide, and soon becoming a dense shrub 
of medium proportions. Nothing can well surpass it for the 
quantity, colour, and quality of its showy flowers, while it is 
the easiest of shrubs to propagate and cultivate. 

Skimmia japonica is a low-growing shrub that I have 
seen doing well in the heart of London, where smoke and 
other impurities of the air do not seem to affect it in the 
least. For beauty of flowers it is not remarkable, but as a 
handsome berry-bearing shrub it can well hold its own with 
any other. A north aspect, and half-peaty soil, would seem 
to suit it. 

The Snowy Mespilus (Amelanchier Botryapium) with 
its racemes of white flowers and desirable outline, is a valu- 
able shrub for planting in towns. The flowers are produced 
in early spring, when lawns and gardens look dull and 
cheerless. Of free growth, it succeeds in any fairly good 
soil, and soon forms a handsome specimen. 

Lilacs have few equals as town shrubs ; indeed, it 
would be good practice to plant these first, whatever else 
might follow. They succeed admirably in the worst and 
most smoky parts of London and Glasgow, and there put on 
an appearance in the early summer that it would be difficult 
to excel in country gardens. Recent experiments have 
proved that many of the finer forms are equal to the common 
kind for this purpose, particularly the Siberian and Persian. 
All are of free growth, non-fastidious as to the soil or site, 
and easily propagated. 

The Kentucky Coffee Tree (Gymnocladus canadensis) 
can ill be spared from any list of suitable subjects for the 
town gardens, it having been proved to be an excellent plant 



32 



for the purpose. The racemes of white flowers which it 
bears are particularly showy and interesting. 

Phillyrea Vilmoriniana. — This has been planted largely 
for experimental purposes in the very heart of London, and 
succeeds there in such a way as to entitle it to rank first 
among shrubs for town-planting. It is a shrub of neat habit, 
is an easy subject to deal with, and requires the least 
attention. 

Forsythia viridissima is another deciduous shrub that 
can withstand the fumes and smoke of towns. It grows 
with the greatest freedom in very vitiated atmospheres, each 
Spring breaking out as fresh and green as if it were growing 
in a sheltered country garden. Of vigorous constitution, it 
grows freely, and flowers most profusely in large cities. 
Stiffish soil suits it well, but it is far from particular in that 
way, and stands hard trimming-in of its shoots with 
impunity. 

The Strawberry Tree (Arbutus Unedo) finds a con- 
genial home in the great Metropolis, and there may be seen 
flourishing, where daily it is subjected to poisonous emana- 
tions from chimneys. The thick, leathery leaves seem well 
able to resist the worst of town air impurities, . for they look 
fresh and green after every shower of rain as could well be 
desired. As an ornamental shrub the Arbutus rank high, 
the creamy flowers and strawberry-like fruit being par- 
ticularly rich and attractive. Any soil of good quality, but 
not surcharged with moisture, grows it well. 

The Double Furze {U lex Eur op ecus flovepleno) is one of 
our handsomest flowering shrubs, and is of great value for 
planting in town gardens and squares. For clothing warm 
and dry banks, where few other plants would succeed, furze 
does remarkably well, the foliage being thick and healthy, 
while the flowers are abundantly produced. It is of neat 
habit, and by judicious pruning may be kept at any desirable 
size. 

The Spurge Laurel {Daphne Laureola) grows freely in 
many town gardens ; indeed it is no uncommon thing to see 
large and well-balanced specimens where smoke and filth are 
the order of the day. It is a pretty evergreen shrub, of free 
and vigorous growth, and one that is well able to take care 
of itself under almost any condition. It does well in the 



33 



shade, and under the drip of other trees, though it is all the 
better for a sunny site, but not too exposed a situation. It is 
readily propagated, and young plants are usually found in 
quantity where old-established specimens abound. 

Cotoneasters of various kinds succeed well as town plants. 
All, or nearly all, are valuable for covering bare and un- 
sightly objects, and as they grow well in the roughest and 
poorest of soils, they may be used in positions where other 
less accommodating subjects will hardly succeed. As orna- 
mental plants, many of the Cotoneasters are highly valuable 
from their neat glossy leaves and abundance of brightly- 
coloured fruit. Particular mention may be made of C. fngida, 
with its large clusters of scarlet berries ; C. Simonsii, with 
silky foliage and vermilion fruit, and our native C. vulgaris? 
a neat and hardy, as well as free-fruiting species. 

Euonymus japonicus is another excellent shrub, one that 
succeeds admirably wherever it is planted. It bears trim- 
ming well, and so can easily be kept to any required 
dimensions. For free growth and a hardy nature it has few 
equals. It is not particular as to soil, and is an excellent 
dry-weather plant, easily propagated and almost smoke- 
defying. 

The double-flowered variety of Prunus sinensis is hard to 
match, either for beauty of bloom or as regards its fitness for 
planting in our smokiest thoroughfares. In many of the 
worst smoke-infested districts of London and Glasgow, it 
and P. triloba appear in quite as good form and health as if 
they were growing in the open country. They are excellent 
hot-weather plants, for after hot and dry summers they do 
not seem so hard pressed as are many of what would be 
considered more robust subjects. Fairly good soil, and not 
too draughty a position, is all they need, while their after- 
management is of the simplest. 

The Almond (Amygdalus communis), and A. C. nana, 
have proved themselves to be useful plants for doing battle 
with the smoke and impure air of towns. They are both 
highly ornamental when in flower, not fastidious as to soil, 
and of neat habit. In and around London almonds are 
largely planted, as they are so ornamental, so free in flower- 
ing, and so easily managed. Of the typical A. communis 
there are numerous distinct varieties, including some with 



34 



much larger and brighter flowers, one of the best of which is 
A communis major. 

Koelveuteria paniculata is a very handsome shrub or small- 
growing tree, particularly when in flower, and it is one of 
the best of town plants. In many of our most smoke- 
infested towns — Warrington, and the outskirt districts of 
Liverpool and Manchester — it grows with great freedom, and 
produces in great abundance, during June and July, its 
panicles of showy yellow flowers. Although the Koelveuteria 
hails from China, it may be relied upon as perfectly hardy in 
perhaps every part of the British Isles. 

The Laurustinus {Viburnum Tinus), finds a congenial 
home in many a London garden, where it has proved itself 
to be a decided acquisition. It is a plant of bright appear- 
ance, and as free-flowering a subject as there is in the whole 
range of hardy shrubs. Cuttings inserted in sandy soil 
during August root freely, and soon form sturdy plants, that 
in a couple of years are fit for transferring to their permanent 
quarters. 

Weigelia rosea and W. amabilis are both highly orna- 
mental shrubs of the freest growth, and well suited for 
planting in smoky localities. In many of the London 
gardens these shrubs may be seen in a satisfactory state, 
showing but few of the bad effects that generally attend 
town shrubs. Both are of simple culture, easily propagated, 
and not fastidious as to the soil. 

Deutzia scabra is another neat-growing and highly desir- 
able plant for the town garden. It flowers, in such situations, 
with unusual freedom, ripening its young wood well, and 
showing but little traces of its struggle with the impure 
atmosphere. It may be trimmed-in at will, is readily pro- 
pagated from cuttings, and succeeds well in a great variety 
of soils and situations. 

The Common Box [Buxus sempevvirens) and the Tree 
Box (B. sempervirens arbor escens) are largely used in town 
parks, squares and gardens. The thick leathery foliage is 
well suited for withstanding impurities in the air. The Tree 
Box thrives better than the normal plant in the heart of our 
largest centres of industry. 



35 



The Gum Cistus (C. ladaniferus) , and the laurel-leaved 
form (C. laurifolius) , are two highly ornamental and perfectly 
hardy shrubs. The former has large white flowers, with a 
distinct purple blotch at the base of the petals, while the 
robust growing C. laurifolius has pure white flowers. Both 
are excellent town plants, doing exceeding well even in very 
populous localities. 

Mahonia aquifolia> M. Bealii, and M. japonica, all do 
fairly well in the town garden, but are the better of being 
assigned to select positions in the open. Good vegetable 
mould seems to suit the various species of Mahonia, and 
when once fairly established they grow and flower freely. 
All are shrubs of great beauty, the bright and showy flowers, 
produced in rich profusion, are followed by abundance of 
clusters of rich bluish-purple berries. 

The Japan Quince {Cydonia japonica) is one of the 
most beautiful shrubs with which our gardens have ever 
been enriched ; and from the number of the fine healthy 
specimens that are to be found in many of our largest towns, 
it would thus appear to be particularly suitable for planting 
where soot and smoke are prevalent. The brilliant scarlet 
flowers, which are produced at a season when such are most 
in want, impart to well-grown specimens a beauty which is 
almost impossible to describe. It is perfectly hardy, not 
fastidious as to soil, and of free and easy growth. 

Hypericum Nepalense is the best of the St. John's Worts 
for withstanding smoke, dust, and heat. It is a plant of 
great beauty, the bright foliage and abundance of large 
golden flowers placing it in the first rank as an ornamental 
plant. 

H. calycinum is also valuable for similar purposes ; while 
for edging to the shrubbery, or for covering bare spots, it has 
few equals. 

Euonymus japonicus, and its silver and golden forms, are 
most useful town shrubs, for they succeed well in very 
smoky and filthy localities. They are plants of great beauty, 
particularly the variegated varieties, of easy culture, and not 
at all particular as to soil in which they grow. E. radicans 
is a straggling decumbent shrub, and, as it stands soot and 
smoke well, it is suitable for planting as a dwarf plant in the 
town garden and square. 



36 



CLIMBERS. 

Of shrubs suitable for covering walls, trellises, and 
arbours, and at the same time able to resist the dire 
influences of smoke and soot, there are a few valuable and 
well-tried kinds. 

The Virginian Creeper (Ampelopsis hedevacea) has few 
equals as a town plant, succeeding perfectly in the midst of 
our busiest centres of industry. Many instances could be 
pointed out, as at Broad Street and Cannonbury, where this 
handsome climber grows with the greatest freedom in the 
most impure and smoke laden atmosphere, constantly 
exposed to the foul air, heat, and dust. It grows freely in 
any soil of ordinary quality, and soon covers a great extent 
of wall. The deeply cut ornamental leaves change to a 
bright red colour in autumn, and are then particularly 
handsome and pleasing. 

The Common Ivy (Hedem Helix) is, perhaps, the most 
valuable of all climbing plants for planting in smoke-infested 
localities. In some of the courts near Ludgate Hill, a 
district of London that is by no means free from smoke and 
foul air, the ivy climbs the houses to a height of 60 feet, 
and surprises one by its fresh appearance in such a locality. 
It needs no training, and will succeed admirably in soil 
composed largely of old mortar, stones, and the smallest 
quantity of loam. 

The Evergreen or Trumpet Honeysuckle [Lonicera 
sempervirens) is another shrub of great merit for town- 
planting, as it thrives well in very confined spaces, and 
where the atmosphere is very impure. It is one of the 
handsomest of the honeysuckles, bearing a rich profusion of 
sweet-scented flowers in early summer, and requiring no 
special treatment or cultivation. It and the Virginian 
creeper require their young shoots to be fastened to the wall. 

Crataegus Pyracantha is a most useful wall shrub for the 
town garden. It is of free growth, stands smoke well, and 
is one of the handsomest berry-bearing plants in cultivation. 
The variety known as Lelandii is, however, preferable to the 
normal plant, both for beauty of flowers and fruit. 

The Jasminum nudiflorum needs little description as it 
is one of our commonest wall plants. For smoky districts 



37 



it is invaluable, blooming freely when flowers are scarce, 
and seeming to heed but little the impurities of a town 
atmosphere. Of free growth, it is well worthy of extended 
culture. 

The Vine (Vitis vinifeva) must not be omitted from any 
list of town climbers, for it bears exposure to soot, smoke, 
dust, and heat in a surprising manner. In many towns it 
may be seen doing well, and covering large areas of wall 
with its large finely divided leaves. 

There are several cut-leaved forms, one or two of which 
are, perhaps, more ornamental than the typical plant. 
Several other climbing wall plants do well in large towns 
where excessive quantities of smoke are absent, but the above 
may be relied upon as those that are best suited for planting 
where the atmosphere is constantly vitiated with impurities. 

CONIFEROUS TREES. 

Few of these, if any, succeed in a satisfactory way when 
constantly subjected to the impurities of a town atmosphere. 
Where the conditions are favourable, the Austrian pine [Pinus 
Austriaca), Thujopsis dolabrata, deciduous cypress {Taxodium 
distichum), and Lawson's cypress (Cypressus Lawsonii) do fairly 
well, but they are not to be recommended for general town- 
planting. Cupressus plumosa aurea stood for five years in one 
of the most smoke-infested districts of Glasgow, and looked 
almost as well as it did when brought from the country. 

OTHER PLANTS. 

Yuccas of various species are to be highly recommended 
for planting, even in very smoky and confined districts. They 
grow with great freedom in many of the London gardens, as 
also in Glasgow, Liverpool, and Manchester. Irises, notably 
1. Germanica, do well even in very smoky and confined 
districts, as they have a marvellous recuperative power after 
being subjected to the heat, dust, and general impurities of a 
town atmosphere. Auriculas and border carnations also do 
fairly well, but they will not stand constant smoke and soot, 
and the same may be said of various species of hellebore, 
Virginian stock, Eranthis hyemalis, and chrysanthemums. 



38 



Much may be done to keep plants fresh and healthy by 
free use of the watering pot, syringe, and hose, and also by 
carefully looking after insect pests, and stamping them out 
as they appear. The combination of adverse circumstances 
to be encountered in growing plants in smoky towns is great 
indeed, and should only be engaged in when special care and 
attention can be bestowed on their culture in general 
management. 

The foregoing list of trees, shrubs, and other plants, 
includes only such kinds as can be confidently recommended 
as suitable subjects for planting in town parks and gardens. 
A great many others might have been added to the list, but 
we consider it better only to include well-tried kinds. 



TOWN TREES. 



Acer macrophylla 

Acer pseudo-platanus 

Acer pseudo-platanus variegata 

vEsculus Hippocastanum 

Ailanthus glandulosa 

Alnus cordifolia 

Betula alba 

Carpinus Betulus 

Catalpa bignonioides 

Cerasus (Prunus) 

Crataegus Oxyacantha 

Crataegus Oxyacantha flore pleno 

Crataegus tanacetifolia 

Fraxinus excelsior pendula 

Gleditschia triacanthos 

Ilex aquifolium 

Ilex Balearica 

Ilex Hodginsii 

Juglans nigra 

Juglans regia 

Liriodendron tulipifera 

Magnolia acuminata 

Magnolia glauca 

Moms alba 



Morus nigra 
Olea Europaea 
Pinus Austriaca 
Platanus acerifolia 
Platanus orientalis 
Populus alba 
Populus canadensis 
Populus fastigiata 
Pyrus aria 
Pyrus aucuparia 
Quercus cerris 
Quercus Ilex 

Retinospora plumosa aurea 

Robinia pseud-acacia 

Robinia pseud-acacia Decaisneana 

Robinia pseud-acacia macrophylla 

Robinia viscosa 

Salix fragalis 

Salix purpurea 

Sophora japonica 

Taxodium distichum 

Taxus baccata 

Tilia Europaea 



39 



TOWN SHRUBS. 



Amelanchier Botryapium 
Ampelopsis Virginica 
Amygdalus nana 
Arbutus Uneda 
Aucuba japonica 
Berberis aquifolia 
Berberis vulgaris 
Buxus Balearica 
Buxus sempervirens 
Cistus ladaniferus 
Cistus laurifolius 
Colutea arborescens 
Cotoneaster thymifolia 
Cotoneaster vulgaris 
Cydonia japonica 
Daphne laureola 
Daphne Mezereum 
Daphne pontica 
Deutzia crenata 
Deutzia gracilis 
Euonymus japonica 
Forsythia suspensa 
Forsythia viridissima 
Griselinia littoralis 
Gymnocladus canadensis 
Hedera Helix 



Hibiscus syriacus 
Hypericum calycinum 
Hypericum Nepalense 
Koelreuteria paniculata 
Leycesteria formosa 
Ligustrum ovalifolium 
Ligustrum coriaceum 
Osmanthus ilicifolius 
Philadelphus grandirlorus 
Phillyrea angustifolia 
Phillyrea latifolia 
Rhamnus frangula 
Rhus cotinus 
Ribes aureum 
Ribes sanguineum 
Ribes speciocum 
Skimmia oblata 
Syringa Josikaea 
Syringa Persica 
Syringa vulgaris 
Ulex Europaeus flore pleno 
Viburnum opulus 
Weigelia rosea 
Yucca gloriosa 
Yucca recurva 



40 

West Kent I^oray, i 9 oi. 

ST. PAUL'S CRAY. 



Agaricus arvensis Schceff'. 


Lactarius quietus 


Fr. 


Amanita muscaria 


Linn. 


„ subdulcis 


Fr. 


„ phalloides 


Fr. 


„ turpis 


Fr. 


„ rubescens 


Fr. 


„ vellereus 


Fr. 


Amanitopsis fulva Schceff. 


Lycoperdon gemmatum 


Boletus badius 


Fr. 


1VT q rc\ cm in c avpq rl tf^c 




„ chrysenteron 


Fr. 


vo TY"> £kQ lie 


/TV 

cr. 


„ edulis 


Bull. 


j j 141 V^llO 


Fr. 


„ scaber 


Fr. 


±1 1. \ \s\*LlCL CI 1 1 1 i l_ K.CL 


Fr. 


Cantharellus aurantiacus Fr. 


epipterygius 


Scop. 


Clitocybe catinus 


Fr. 




JD Ml. 


„ clavipes 


Pers. 


era 1 Ari pn 1 


S cop. 


„ ditopus 


Fr. 


„ galopus 


Pers. 


„ inversus 


Scop. 


laciea 


fr. 


„ laccata 


Scop. 


i.> LildllCfl JUllCCd. 


jrr. 


„ odora 


Bull. 


Paxillus involutus 


Fr. 


Clitopilus prunulus 


Sc. 


Pholiota squarrosa 


Mull. 


Collybia butyracea 


Bull. 


Polystictus versicolor 


Fr. 


„ dryophila 


B^ll. 


Psilocybe spadicea 


Fr. 


„ maculata A. 


fir- S. 


Russula alutacea 


Fr. 


„ ocellata 


Fr. 


„ armeniaca 


Cne. 


„ tuberosa 


Bull. 


„ citrina 


Gill. 


Cortinarius fasciatus 


Fr. 


„ emetica 


Fr. 


„ paleaceus 


Fr. 


„ fallax 


Schceff. 


„ rigidus 


Fr. 


„ fragilis 


Fr. 


Hebeloma firma 


Fr. 


„ furcata 


Fr. 


,, geophylla 


Sow. 


„ ochroleuca 


Fr. 


Hypholoma epixantha 


Fr. 


Scleroderma vulgare 




„ fasciculare 


Hud. 


Stereum hirsutum 


Fr. 


„ sublateritia 


Sch. 


„ rugosum 


Fr. 


Inocybe maritima 


Fr. 


Tricholoma rutilans 


Schceff. 


Lactarius camphoratus 


Fr. 


Xylaria hypoxylon 


Fr. 


„ glyciosmus 


Fr. 


M. C. Cook 



RULES. 



1. — The Society shall be called the West Kent Natural History,. 
Microscopical and Photographic Society, and have for its objects the 
promotion of the study of Natural History, Microscopical Research, and 
Photography. 

2. — The Society shall consist of members who shall pay an annual sub- 
scription of 10s. 6d., and of honorary members. The annual subscription 
may, however, be commuted into a Life Subscription by the payment of 
£5 5s. in one sum. All subscriptions shall be due on 1st January iu each 
year. 

3. — The affairs of the Society shall be managed by a Council, consisting 
of a President, four Vice-Presidents, Treasurer, two Secretaries, and 
13 Members, who shall be elected from the general body of ordinary 
members. 

4. — The President and other officers and members of Council shall be 
annually elected by ballot. The Council shall prepare a list of such 
persons as they think fit to be so elected, which shall be laid before the 
general meeting, and any member shall be at liberty to strike out all or 
any of the names proposed by the Council, and substitute any other name 
or names he may think proper. The President and Vice-Presidents shall 
not hold office longer than two consecutive years. 

5. —The Council shall hold their meetings on the day of the ordinary 
meetings of the Society, before the commencement of such meeting. No 
business shall be done unless five members be present. 

6. — Special meetings of Council shall be held at the discretion of the 
President or one of the Vice-Presidents. 

7. — The Council shall prepare, and cause to be read at the annual 
meeting, a report on the affairs of the Society for the preceding year. 

8. — Two Auditors shall be elected by show of hands at the ordinary 
meeting held in Januar}-. They shall audit the Treasurer's accounts, and 
produce their report at the annual meeting. 



42 



9. — Every candidate for admission into the Society must be proposed 
and seconded at one meeting and balloted for at the next ; and when two- 
thirds of the votes of the members present are in favour of the candidate 
he shall be duly elected. No new member shall be entitled to any of the 
privileges and advantages of the Society until he shall have paid his 
subscription for the first year of his membership. 

10. — Each member shall have the right to be present and vote at all 
general meetings, and to propose candidates for admission as members. 
He shall also have the privilege of introducing two visitors to the ordinary 
and field meetings of the Society. 

11. — No member shall have the right of voting, or be entitled to any of 
the advantages of the Society, if his subscription be six months in arrear. 
And if any member's subscription shall be in arrear for three years, the 
Council shall have power in their discretion to remove his name from the 
List of Members, and he shall thereupon cease to be a member, and to 
have any claim or interest in the Society or its property ; but this 
Rule is without prejudice to any claim which the Society may have 
against such member for arrears of subscriptions. 

12. — The annual meeting shall be held on the Fourth Wednesday in 
February, for the purpose of electing officers for the year ensuing, for 
receiving the reports of the Council and Auditors, and for transacting any 
other business. 

13. — Notice of the annual meeting shall be given at the preceding 
ordinary meeting. 

14. — The ordinary meetings shall be held on the fourth Wednesday in 
the months of October, November, January, March, April, and May, and 
the second Wednesday in December, or at such other date and at such 
place as the Council may determine. The Chair shall be taken at 8 p.m., 
and the business of the meeting being disposed of, the meeting shall 
resolve into a conversazione. 

15. — Field meetings may be held during the summer months at the 
discretion of the Couneil ; of these, due notice in respect to time, place, &c, 
shall be sent to each member. 

16. — Special meetings shall be called by the Secretaries immediately 
upon receiving a requisition signed by not less than five members, such 
requisition to state the business to be transacted at the meeting. 



43 



Fourteen days' notice of such meeting shall be given in writing by the 
Secretaries to each member of the Society, such notice to contain a copy 
of the requisition, and no business but that of which notice is thus given 
shall be transacted at such special meeting. 

17. — Members shall have the right of suggesting to the Council any 
books to be purchased for the use of the Society. 

18. — All books in the possession of the Society shall be allowed to 
•circulate among the members, under such regulations as the Council may 
•deem necessary. 

19. — The microscopical objects and instruments in the possession of the 
Society shall be made available for the use of the members, under such 
regulations as the Council may determine ; and the books, objects, and 
instruments shall be in the custody of one of the Secretaries. 

20. — The Council shall have power to recommend to the members any 
gentleman not a member of the Society, who may have contributed 
scientific papers or otherwise benefited the Society, to be elected an 
honorary member ; such election to be by show of hands. 

21. — No alteration in the rules shall be made, except at the annual 
meeting, or at a meetiug specially convened for the purpose, and then by 
a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present, of which 
latter meeting fourteen days' notice shall be given, and in either case 
notice of the alterations proposed must be given at the previous meeting, 
and also inserted in the circulars sent to the members. 



44 



feief of (JUemfrers. 

Members are particularly requested to ?iotify any change in their 
address to the Hon. Secretaries, Kidbrooke Lodge. 
Blafkheaih, S.E. 



NOTE. — Members against whose names an asterisk is placed were Members 
either of the West Kent Natural History and Microscopical Society 
or of the Blackheath Photographic Society ; in 1863, at the time of 
the amalgamation of these Societies, the Society as at present 
constituted having been formed upon such amalgamation. A date 
against the name of a member shows the date of his election. 



2E>onorat£ (gtemfiere. 

*Bossey, F., M.D., Oxford Terrace, Red Hill, Surrey. 

*Collingwood, Dr. C, M.A., B.M. (Oxon), M.R.C.P., F.L.S., &c. r 
69, Great Russell Street, VV.C. 

1896 Dallinger, Rev. W. II., D.D., D.C.L , LL.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c, 
Ingleside, 38, Newstead Road, Lee, S.E. 

*Glashier, James, F.R.S., F.R.4.S., The Shola, Heathfield Road,. 
South Crtrydoh. 

* Jones, Sydney, 16, George Street, Hanover Square, W. 

1864 Yogan, James, Tauranga, New Zealand. 

1875 Wiltshire, Rev. Prof. Thomas, M.A., F.L.S., F.R.A.S., F.G.S., 

25, Granville Park, Blackheath. 

*Dawson, W. G , Plnmstead Common. 

1870 Dewick, Rev. E. S., M.A., F.S.A., F.G.S., 26, Oxford Square, 
Hyde Park, W. 

1876 Donaldson, T. O., M. Inst. C.E., 49, Lee Terrace, Blackheath. 

(Vice -Pi esidevt.) 

1886 Green, Joseph F., West Lodge, Eliot Vale, Blackheath. 

1878 Jones, Herbert, F.L.S., F.S.A., 42, Shooters Hill Road, Blackheath. 
{Hor>. Treasurer.) 

1876 Knill, Alderman Sir John, Bart., South Yale House, Blackheath. 

1865 Avebury, Lord, F.R.S., &c, Hi^h Elms, Farnborough, R.S.O., Kent. 
1882 Smith, Frederick W., " Hollywood," 63, Lewisham Hill, Blackheath. 



45 

(Drfctnarg QUemfiers* 

1882 Adams, Harold J., M.A., F.R.A.S., St. John's, Cedars Road, 

Beckenham. ( Council.) 

1892 Adkin, R., " Wellfield," Lingards Road, Lewisham. 

1883 Ballance, A. W., Park Lodge, Blackheath Park, S.E. 

1897 Bennett, C. J., The " Haven," 98, Palace Road, Tulse Hill, S.W. 

1897 Bennett, E. F. T., 4, Upper Park Place, Blackheath Park. 

1867 Billinghurst, H. F., F.S.S., 35, Granville Park, Blackheath. 
(Vice-President.) 

1900 Billinghurst, W. B., B.A., 35, Granville Park, Blackheath. 

(Hon. Secretary.) 

1897 Blakesley, Thomas H., M.A., C.E., 3, Eliot Hill, Blackheath. 
1897 Butcher, W. F., F.C.S., 4, Eliot Vale, Blackheath. 

1901 Cooney, Arthur Edwd., 45, London Street, Greenwich. 
1890 Cox, F. J., " Lnstleigh," Dorville Road, Lee. 

1875 Deed, Alfred, " Heathfleld," Priory Lane, Blackheath. (Council.) 
1866 Dewick, J., 59, Clarendon Road, Lewisham. 

1890 Dolling-Smith, H., " Dinapore," Oakwood Avenue, Beckenham. 
( Council.) 

1892 Draper, Geo., F.R.G.S., 82, Shooters Hill Road, Blackheath. 
(President.) 

1884 Edwards, Stanley, F.R.G.S., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Kidbrooke Lodge, 

Blackheath. (Hon. Secretary.) 

1901 Fountain, Frederic, 44, Crooms Hill, Greenwich. 
1897 Gover, A. S., 10, Lee Park, Blackheath 
1897 Gover, W. H., 12, Lee Park, Blackheath. (Council.) 
*Groves, William, Grove House, Shortlands, Kent. 

1876 Hainworth, H., F.R.H.S., " Kirton," 54, St. John's Park, Blackheath. 

( Council.) 

1899 Hayward, W. B., M.A., The Mission School, Blackheath. 
1897 Hilton, John, 52, Southbrook Road, Lee. 
1887 Jones, Arthur Goddard, 3, Talbot Place, Blackheath. 
1899 Kerr, R., F.G.S.. 13, Ormiston Road, Blackheath. 
1896 Kidd, Walter, M.D., F.Z.S., 12, Montpelier Row, Blackheath. 
(Vice-President.) 

1896 Kiddle, R. N., L.D.S. Eng., 46, Lee Terrace, Blackheath. 

1871 Low, Edwin, 3, Eliot Park, Blackheath. 

1901 Low, V. H., 34, Granville Park, Blackheath. 

1896 MacDougall, Jas. T., " Dunolly," Morden Road, Blackheath. 

1873 McLachlan, Robert, F.R.S., F.L.S., &c, " West View," 23, Clarendon 

Road, Lewisham. (Vice-President.) 
1899 May, Morgan, 60, Shooters Hill Road, Blackheath. (Council.) 
*Pnrvis, Prior, M.D., 5, Lansdowne Place, Blackheath. 



46 



1897 Ryley, Thomas, 7, Park Place, Blackheath Park. 

1887 Saunders, H. S., " Chelgrove," 16, Corona Road, Lee. 

1893 Saunders, M. L., 13, Blessington Road, Lee. 

1872 Smith, W. Johnson, F.R.C.S., Seamen's Hospital, Greenwich. 

1899 Soames, Rev. Werner H. K., M.A., " Fernleigh," Westcombe 
Park Road, Blackheath. 

1901 Stone, Arthur, B. A., 3, Lansdowne Place, Blackheath. 

1899 Stone, Charles, 6, Vanbrugh Terrace, Blackheath. 

1883 Stone, Edward, 3, Lansdowne Place, Blackheath. 

1882 Stone, John M., M.A., 5, St. Germans Place, Blackheath. (Council.) 

1873 Tayler, Francis T., M.B., B.A., Claremont Villa, 224, Lewisham 

High Road. (Council.) 

1896 Walker, G. M., 35, Bennett Park, Blackheath. 

1895 Weare, Joseph C, 77, St. John's Park, Blackheath. (Council) 

1900 Webster, A. D., F.R.S.E., Blackheath Lodge, Greenwich Park. 

( Council) 

1877 Webster, William, F.C.S., 50, Lee Park, Blackheath. (Council.) 

*Wire, Travers B., 54, Crooms Hill, Greenwich. (Council.) 

1891 Witherby, Harry F., F.Z.S., M.B.O.U., 10. St. Germans Place, 
Blackheath. ( Council.) 

1884 Wrigley, P. T., M.A., " Shrublands," Kew, Surrey. (Council.) 




PRESENTED 
2 0JUN.1904 




Meetings of tbe Societp, 



FOR 


THE SESSION 


1902-3. 












Wednesday , March 




26th, 


1902* 


tt 


April ... 


23rd 


tt 


tt 


May ... 


28th 


tt 


tf 


October 


22nd 


tt 


tt 


November 


26th 


tt 


tt 


December 


10th 


tt 


• . " • ' tt " 


January 


28th, 


1903. 


tt 


February 


25th 





The Chair is taken at Eight o'clock. 

->=»eoK>o^s«- 



THE MEETINGS ARE HELD IN THE HALL OF THE 
MISSION SCHOOL, BLACKHEATH.